The Impact of Civic Knowledge, College, High School, and Teaching on “Passive” and “Active” Civic Engagement
(upward pointing arrow indicates positive statistical relationship; downward pointing arrow indicates negative statistical relationship; left and right pointing arrows indicates no statistical relationship)
Explanatory Variable Registered to Vote Voted Gave Money to a Political Campaign Tried to Influence How Others Vote Attended Political Meeting, or Rally Worked on a Political Campaign Contacted a Public Official Signed a Political Petition Published a Letter to the Editor
Civic Knowledge* upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow
Bachelor's Degree^ left and right pointing arrows upward pointing arrow left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows
High School Degree^ upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows upward pointing arrow left and right pointing arrows
K12 Teacher* left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow
College Teacher* left and right pointing arrows downward pointing arrow left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows left and right pointing arrows upward pointing arrow upward pointing arrow left and right pointing arrows upward pointing arrow
*Positive correlation with the seven “active” civic engagement activities when combined together as a single phenomenon.
^Zero correlation with the seven “active” civic engagement activities when combined together as a single phenomenon.